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Home » Publications » Papers in scientific journals and popular science publications » 2009

Diversity of vegetative compatibility types, mating types and occurrence of hypovirulence in Cryphonectria parasitica populations in NW Spain
IVth International Chestnut Symposium. Acta Hort. 844, ISHS 2009 Pag: 381-386

O. Aguín¹, D. Montenegro¹, M.J. Sainz², M. Hermida¹ and J.P. Mansilla¹

¹Estación Fitopatolóxica do Areeiro. Deputación de Pontevedra. Subida a la Robleda s/n, E-36153 Pontevedra, Spain.
²Departamento de Producción Vegetal. Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Universitario, E-27002 Lugo, Spain. E-mail:

ABSTRACT: Chestnut blight, caused by Cryphonectria parasitica, is widely spread in chestnut stands all over the world. At present, the most promising prospects to control the disease are based on the knowledge of its fungal populations in affected stands and the use of hypovirulent strains. A survey was carried out to study the biology of C. parasitica populations in chestnut stands in Lugo and Ourense provinces (NW Spain), determining the diversity of vegetative compatibility types (vc), mating type diversity and occurrence of hypovirulent strains. A total of 612 isolates were obtained, most showing a virulent phenotype. Only four isolates, from Lugo province, showed the presence of dsRNA, which was indicative of hypovirulence. Hypovirus molecular characterization of these isolates determined they belonged to subtype E of Cryphonectria hypovirus-1 (CHV1-E).The diversity of vegetative compatibility types was very low. Only 9 vc types were found, being five of them present in both provinces. Four vc types were compatible with the known European testers (EU1, EU9, EU66 and EU72), and the other five corresponded to types being only found so far in NW Spain, named E1-E5. The dominant vc types in both populations were E1, E2 and E3, being present in 97% of the isolates. Two hypovirulent strains were compatible with vc type E1, one with vc type E2 and one with vc type E3. The study of mating types showed that the idiomorph MAT-1 was predominant in both populations. Its mainly asexual reproduction, the low rate of diversity of compatibility types and the detection of hypovirulent strains compatible with dominant vc types are factors favouring the application of a biological control program in affected stands in NW Spain.

Keywords: biological control, dsRNA virus, chestnut blight

Selection of Castanea sativa Mill. for Resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi: Testing of Selected Clones.
IVth International Chestnut Symposium. Acta Hort. 844, ISHS 2009 Pag: 395-403

B. Cuenca¹, M.R. Fernández¹, L. Ocaña¹, C. Salinero², C. Pintos², J.P. Mansilla² and C. Rial²

¹TRAGSA Departamento de Mejora Agroforestal. Crta. Maceda-Valdrey, km.2. 32700 Maceda. Ourense. Spain.
²Estación Fitopatolóxica do Areeiro (Diputación de Pontevedra), Subida a la Robleda s/n. 36153 Pontevedra.

ABSTRACT: Between 2000 and 2005, TRAGSA conducted a EUREKA project funded by the Spanish Government, for the exhaustive prospecting of Castanea sativa trees in Galicia. Third Forest National Inventory and Forest Map were used, localising ink disease severely affected areas, where chestnut was first or second species. 206 trees were selected throughout 18,808.84 ha in 1 and 2 Bouhier's regression areas. These clones were established for in vitro propagation (Cuenca et al, 2005) as well as tested for resistance by inoculating excised shoots of adult material (Robin et al, 2006). Results of these tests were not repetitive due to the high dependence on the physiology of material coming from the field. Therefore, acclimated vitroplants of the selected trees were produced when possible, and root inoculation was conducted. At the same time, an in vitro test (Rial and col., 2007) was also carried out to determine a possible correlation between both types of tests and therefore the possibility of performing the in vitro test for the rest of the collection. Physiology of acclimated vitroplants seemed to have an important influence on the result of root inoculation, as all the clones tested during spring or early summer died in a percentage higher than those tested at the end of summer. From the 18 clones tested from May to July, 3 of them survived in a percentage higher than 75%, and one of them presented no ink disease symptoms. When clones were tested in vitro, all the explants died. There seems to be some relation between resistance and time to express the symtomps in vitro, so the more resistant the clone is, the longer it takes to die. Molecular characterization by SSRs (Yamamoto and col., 2003) for those clones presenting resistance features is on process to know if they are pure sativa genotypes or resistance is due to the presence of Asiatic alleles.

Keywords: Castanea sativa, Phytophthora cinnamomi, resistance

Coleópteros xilófagos asociados a las masas de Pinus pinaster aiton de Galicia. Estudio comparativo 2005-2008
Volumen 35 Nº4 2009 4º Trimestre Pag:571-580

R. Pérez-Otero, R. Nicolás, A. B. Castro-García, J. P. Mansilla

Estación Fitopatolóxica do Areeiro. Subida a la Robleda s/n. 36153 Pontevedra

ABSTRACT: This article shows the captures of xylophagous insects collected using Lindgren traps in pine woods of the Galicia region, in north-western Spain, during the years 2005 to 2008. Major species, their distribution in each region during the year and also the presence of predators is reported. During the research a significant diversity of Scolytidae (34 species) was noticed and also Cerambycidae and some other wood-boring families. The final number of captures showed in most cases dependence to the number of traps installed and their location. Nevertheless, mean values show an increment in the species of insects captured after the fires that threatened most forests of the region in 2006 and also their number and their predators have increased.

Keywords: bark beetles, Cerambycidae, Lindgren trap, pine, Spain.

Materias activas registradas en camelia en Europa
Publicación de la Sociedad Española de la Camelia Nº14 June 2009 Page:27-31

Pérez Otero, Rosa; Gago García, Javier; Mansilla Vázquez, J. Pedro

Estación Fitopatolóxica do Areeiro. Subida a la Robleda s/n. 36153 Pontevedra

ABSTRACT: The use of chemicals to control pests and diseases affecting plant species is a common practice. However, sometimes it is unknown which are the most efficient products, which are registered for each species and those available in the market. This work lists the active ingredients of acaricides and insecticides currently registered in Spain Germany and Italy for camellia, according to the (Directive) 91/414 CEE concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market and the infectious agents.

Aplicación de técnicas de polinización de apoyo para mejorar el calibre del kiwi
Revista de Fruticultura, Nº1 September - October 2009

M.C. Salinero¹, P. Piñón¹, M.J. Sainz², M.V. Andrés³

¹ Deputación de Pontevedra. Estación Fitopatolóxica do Areeiro.
² Departamento Producción Vexetal. Universidad de Santiago de Compostela
³ Agroseguro.

ABSTRACT: Although Actinidia fruit demand is high nowadays, supply is gradually increasing and the existing competition in the market compels us to obtain a large fruit production of homogeneous size, weighing more than 100 g but maintaining adequate sensory parameters and being at the same time healthy and ecological. An adequate pollination influences the final size of the fruit. The maximum number of seeds per fruit is obtained only when a large number of pollen grains reach the stigmatic surface (Hopping and Hacking, 1983). Thus, a fruit of 100 g contains from 1000 to 1500 seeds. Adequate management practices complemented with the application of pollen from other orchards and the development of methods to disseminate the pollen within the same orchard are crucial to improve kiwifruit size. The aim of the present work was to study the effect of several pollination techniques to improve 'Hayward' fruit size in commercial kiwifruit plantations.

Keywords: Actinidia deliciosa, Hayward, pollen, fruit production, Galicia

First Report of Cylindrocladium buxicola on Buxus sempervirens in Spain
Plant Disease June 2009, Volume 93 Page: 670

C. Pintos Varela, B. González Penalta, J. P. Mansilla Vázquez, O. Aguín Casal

Estación Fitopatolóxica do Areeiro, Subida a la Robleda s/n, 36153 Pontevedra, España.

ABSTRACT: Cylindrocladium buxicola Henricot, included in the EPPO alert list until November 2008, causes a dangerous foliar disease on Buxus spp. that has been recorded in several European countries and New Zealand (3,4). Buxus sempervirens L. (common boxwood) is one of the oldest ornamental garden plants in Europe. In September 2008, we received 10 2- to 3-year-old potted plants of B. sempervirens cv. Suffruticosa from a nursery in Galicia (northwest Spain) where ˜60% of the plants were affected and had finally defoliated. Diseased plants showed dark brown-to-black spots on the leaves and black streaks on the stems (3,4). To induce sporulation, diseased leaves and stem pieces were incubated in damp chambers at 22°C. A Cylindrocladium sp. was obtained. Four single conidial isolates were plated onto carnation leaf agar under near-UV light at 25°C for 7 days (2,3). Only conidiophores of the isolates growing on the surface of the carnation leaves were examined microscopically (1,3). Macroconidiophores were comprised of a stipe, a stipe extension, a terminal vesicle, and a penicillate arrangement of fertile branches (2). The stipe extension was septate, hyaline, and 90 to 165 × 2 to 4.5 µm (from the highest primary branch to the vesicle tip) (1) terminating in an ellipsoidal vesicle (6 to 11 µm in diameter) with a papillate apex. The widest part of the vesicle was above the middle. Primary branches were mainly aseptate or one septate (12 to 35 × 3 to 6 µm), secondary branches were aseptate (11 to 21 × 3 to 6 µm), and tertiary branches were rare. Each terminal branch produced two to five phialides (9 to 20 × 2.5 to 5 µm) that were reniform and aseptate. Conidia were cylindrical, straight, and one septate (56 to 75 × 4 to 6 µm). Chlamydospores were dark brown and aggregated to form microsclerotia. Cardinal temperatures of Cylindrocladium isolates on 2% malt extract agar ranged from 7 to 28°C (optimum 25°C). The 5' end of the ß-tubulin gene was amplified using primers T1 and Bt2b (3), and PCR products were sequenced directly and deposited in GenBank (Accession No. FJ696535). Comparison of the sequence with others available in GenBank showed 100% homology with those previously identified as C. buxicola (Accession Nos. AY078123 and AY078118). Pathogenicity of one representative isolate was confirmed by inoculating stems and leaves of four 3- to 4-year–old plants of B. sempervirens cv. Suffruticosa. Leaves were inoculated by spraying a spore suspension of the fungus (1 × 106 conidia per ml). For the stems, agar pieces of 1-week-old cultures grown on malt extract agar were placed and sealed with Parafilm. As a control, four plants were inoculated with agar malt plugs and sterile distilled water. Plants were incubated at 22°C and 95% humidity. Symptoms identical to ones previously described appeared 4 days after inoculation. C. buxicola was reisolated from inoculated plants but not from the controls. On the basis of morphological and physiological characteristics, pathogenicity, and the DNA sequencing of the ß-tubulin gene, the isolates obtained from B. sempervirens were identified as C. buxicola (3). To our knowledge, this is the first report of C. buxicola on B. sempervirens in Spain.

Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg & O´Donell: TELEOMORFO Gibberella circinata
Forestra Page: 9-11

C. Pintos Varela, B. González Penalta, J. P. Mansilla Vázquez, O. Aguín Casal

Estación Fitopatolóxica do Areeiro, Subida a la Robleda s/n, 36153 Pontevedra, España.

ABSTRACT: Pine pitch canker is a severe disease caused by the fungus Fusarium circinatum, which affects several pine species, mainly Pinus radiata , Pinus sylvestris, Pinus pinaster, Pinus pinea, Pinus canariensis and Pseudotsuga menziessi. The disease was first observed in 1946 in North Carolina, and quickly widespread to other states in USA. In 1996 the fungus was identified in California, becoming epidemic and mainly affecting Pinus radiata. So far, the disease was detected in Mexico, USA, Japan, Iraq, South Africa, Chile, Spain and Haiti.

Reflejo en la Vid (Vitis vinifera L. ) var. Albariño de las Modificaciones Inducidas tras el Encalado de un Suelo Alumínico
Presente y futuro de la Nutrición Mineral de las Plantas Pag: 1.029 - 1.041

M.J. Lema1; M. Tubio2; R. Freijido; P. Rodríguez

1 Estación Fitopatolóxica do Areeiro, Subida a la Robleda s/n, 36153 Pontevedra, España.
2 Viticultores Martín Códax SCG. Burgáns, 91. Vilariño. 36633. Cambados. PO

ABSTRACT: Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) var. Albariño, representative of the Denomination of Origin Rías Baixas develops well in acid soils. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the evolution of a natural soil recently transformed for grapevine, using the foliar composition as a diagnosis tool for nutrition. The response to the application of three limestone products on the evolution of diverse fertility parameters was studied. On the other hand, the nutritional composition of limbs and petioles on fruit set and veraison was determined; these results were compared to those obtained in six productive plantations. Results show that dosages could correct the superficial layer of the soil but acidity persisted in depth. On the other hand, the use of different materials has been reflected in the composition of the plant: calcium in the limb and magnesium in both organs. In addition, the concentration of N, K, Ca and Mg in the limb is proximate to the weighted average value, due to the higher relative weight of this part of the leaf. We can conclude that the minimum dosages necessary to correct acidity are not enough to transform natural soils, such as it occurs in this assay; on the other hand, given that the limb accurately reflects the nutritional condition of grapevine, this will be the selected organ to be diagnosed, especially when the problem is caused by the low amount of calcium.

Keywords: grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.); soil fertility, soil acidity, nutrition diagnosis, limb and petiole macronutrients.

Efecto del Abonado y Control de la Cubierta Vegetal en las Propiedades Organolépticas del Fruto del Kiwi
Presente y futuro de la Nutrición Mineral de las Plantas Page: 1.029 - 1.041

C. Salinero1, P. Piñón1*, M. J. Lema1, L. Martínez 2, F. Veloso 3

1 Estación Fitopatolóxica do Areeiro, Subida a la Robleda s/n, 36153 Pontevedra, España.
2 The Trading House Amodia, Rúa Amizade 5. 36600 Vilagarcía de Arousa. España
3 Soc. Agricola Lda. Kiwi Iberica. S. Pedro da Torre, 4930 Valença. Portugal

ABSTRACT: In our latitude, expectations of the kiwifruit sector regarding kiwi productions with high yields and an adequate fruit size have been fulfilled. Thus, at present, this sector is focusing their efforts towards the quality improvement of fruit sensory properties, highly demanded by the consumer, so as to be competitive in the international market. There are several sensory properties that determine quality in kiwifruit. A kiwifruit is considered to have a good flavour quality standard, when the content rate of soluble solids (ºBrix) is the highest when consumed. Dry matter is another parameter internationally accepted as an indicator of the "intrinsic" quality of kiwifruit. The acidity and the starch content also play an important role on the attainment of these quality standards. The aim of the present work is to determine the effect of fertilization and training (T- bar or pergola) on content and evolution of these sensory parameters. Assays were performed during 2007 in kiwi orchards in Northern Portugal (Kiwi Ibérica S.A.), taking fruit samples every 15 days from fruit set (phenological stage H) until harvest. Then, sensory properties of these fruits were analyzed according to AOAC internationally recognized methods. Results showed that fertilization influenced significantly dry matter, soluble solids, starch content and acidity. In our environmental conditions, additional fertilization had a negative effect on the sensory parameters. Studied parameters did not show any difference between plants with different degrees of sun exposure.

Keywords: Actinidia deliciosa, dry matter, º Brix, starch, acidity, sun exposure.

Método rápido para la propagación de helechos ornamentales
Plantflor Nº133 Year 22 - 2009 Page: 82-85

A. Barros1, C. Salinero1, P. Vela1 y M.J. Sainz2

1 Estación Fitopatolóxica do Areeiro, Subida a la Robleda s/n, 36153 Pontevedra, España.
2 Departamento de Producción Vegetal, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Universitario, 27002 Lugo, España

ABSTRACT: Although some tree ferns can be propagated by rhizome division, the propagation method currently used is by spores. However, this method could be difficult in some cases in which environmental conditions (temperature, light and moisture) are not adequate for fern development. In the present work, 6 species belonging to 3 genera were selected: Cyathea cooperi, C. contaminans, C. tsangii, Pteris incompleta, P. cretica and Asplenium nidus, as they can be cultivated both indoors and outdoors. The germination rate of the spores of all species was high, thus producing a large number of specimens. The average duration of fern development from sowing to the end of the acclimation period was 6 months for the six species estudied. Differences among them were observed in the time of prothallus emergence and on their acclimation period.

Phenological growth stages of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa 'Hayward')
Scientia Horticulturae 121 (2009) 27-31

M.C. Salineroa, P. Velaa, M.J. Sainzb

a Estación Fitopatolóxica do Areeiro, Subida a la Robleda s/n, 36153 Pontevedra, España
b Departamento de Producción Vegetal, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Universitario, 27002 Lugo, España

ABSTRACT: The phenological growth stages of Hayward kiwifruit vines are described using the BBCH scale. Detailed descriptions of principal growth stages for bud, leaf and shoot development, inflorescence emergence, flowering, fruit development, maturity of fruit, and senescence, and 36 secondary growth stages are provided. Some practical applications of the BBCH scale for kiwifruit orchard management are discussed.

Keywords: BBCH scale, kiwifruit, phenology